Hominid Development (Part 2)

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Modern humans developed over a period of millions of years.  Here is a summary of what we know based on fossil records.


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  • The remains of Australopithecus were mostly found in “East Africa”.
  • The Australopithecus  brain was roughly 35% of the size of the modern human brain.
  • The Australopithecus female stood between 1.2m and 1.4 m (3.9ft and 4.6ft), but males were 50% larger (taller, heavier) than females.

Homo Habilis:

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  • Homo Habilis remains were found in Olduvai Gorge in Tanzania.
  • Homo Habilis were the first to use stone tools.
  • They are believed to have been about 1.3 meters (4.2ft) tall, and weigh about 37 kilograms (81 pounds).

Homo Erectus:

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  • Homo erectus in Latin means “upright man”.
  • Homo erectus were the first to walk upright.
  • Early in the 20th century it was believed that the first modern humans lived in Asia. But during the 1950s and 1970s, many fossil finds from East Africa were discovered.


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  • Neanderthal fossils are only found in Europe.
  • The size of the Neanderthal brain shows that Neanderthals were probably intelligent.
  • They made Divje Babe musical flute.


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  • The earliest known Cro-Magnon remains are between 35,000 and 45,000 years old, based on radiometric dating.
  • They were found in Italy and Britain.
  • Their brains were actually slightly larger than the average humans today.

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